Scientific Working And Application Of M2 Occido Plus In The Disinfection Of Fresh Produce
M2 OCCIDO PLUS is based on a new innovative oxidation technology and is a highly effective industrial disinfectant for the disinfection, sanitation or treatment of fresh produce.
M2 OCCIDO PLUS, in the disinfection process, does not create any DBP (Disinfection by products) HAA’s (Haloacetic acid) or THM’s (Trihalomethanes).
During the AOP treatment free radicals are generated in sufficient quantity to remove organic material, traceable organic contaminants, and certain inorganic pollutants. Free radical activity also increases the biodegradability of inorganic contaminants by altering the chemical structure and in the case of pathogen micro-organisms, destroying the cell membranes.
Understanding the terms used to describe microbial control is important when selecting the appropriate action for eliminating disease causing organisms. Three terms commonly used but often misunderstood are sterilization, disinfection, and sanitation.
- Sterilization – The destruction of all infective and reproductive forms of all microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.).
- Disinfection – The destruction of all vegetative forms of microorganisms.
- Sanitation – The reduction of pathogenic organism numbers to a level at which they do not pose a disease threat to their host.
Application: M2 OCCIDO PLUS is a free flowing granular, highly soluble in water chemical compilation containing no chlorine or any halogen-based product. It is much more safer than chlorine in the destruction of spores, total aerobic bacteria enumeration, viruses, fungi and other pathogen organisms and also destroys phenols commonly encountered in natural underground waters.
M2 OCCIDO PLUS– OXYGEN BASED SANITATION FOR FRESH PRODUCE TREATMENT FOR DRENCHING AND WETTING APPLICATIONS
FRUIT AND VEGETABLE HANDLING
More than one third of the perishable food crops produced in the world is lost after harvesting. Horticultural crops are perishable products that are harvested seasonally and are subsequently subject to ripening, senescence, microbial and pest infestation, water loss, anatomical, morphological and compositional changes. Therefore, the development of adequate post harvest treatments for fresh horticultural food crops, and their optimum use are of great necessity and economic importance. Adequate post harvest treatments should reduce losses and preserve perishable foods to meet consumer demands for constant availability and good quality throughout the year.
Post harvest handling of many vegetables and fruits usually involves the use of flumes, water dump tanks, spray washers, or hydro coolers. Most post harvest processes recirculate used water (process water) to conserve water and energy. Dirt, organic matter and disease-causing pathogens can accumulate in process water during dumping, hydro cooling, and flume recirculation.
Disinfection is the treatment of process water to inactivate or destroy pathogenic bacteria, fungi, viruses, cysts, and other microorganisms.
Disinfection is part of an overall sanitation and safety management program.
Chlorination alone is not a sanitation program- it is best viewed to minimize the transmission of pathogens from infested produce or debris to non-infested surfaces such as harvest or process cuts, wounds, or natural plant surface openings.
FORMS OF CHLORINE IN WATER
Chlorine (Cl) is a very potent disinfectant with powerful oxidizing properties. Chlorine is commercially available in three forms that have been approved for use by the EPA (U.S Environmental Protection Agency)
- Chlorine Gas (Cl₂)
- Calcium Hypochlorite (CaCl₂0₂)
- Sodium Hypochlorite (Na0Cl)
KEY POINTS FOR PROPER CHLORINE DISINFECTION
Potable water should be used for all post harvest washing, grading and cooling operations. Contaminated water used during post harvest operations can transmit diseases that decay the produce or adversely affect human health.
Although chlorine activity slightly increases with temperature, low temperature and improper pH values in hydro cooling, for example, can greatly reduce disinfection efficiency.
Chorine is highly reactive with leaves, soil, and any plant or vegetable material. Each chemical reaction reduces the amount of active chlorine in the water. Changing chlorinated water frequently or filtering out organic matter and debris is essential for effective sanitation. Also, prewashing dirty produce can prolong the useful life of chlorinated cooling water.
Disinfection is best accomplished by driving contact (exposure) times and concentrations through direct experience for each type of produce and local conditions. Microorganisms differ in their sensitivity to chlorine: bacteria are most sensitive, many fungal spores are less sensitive, and some spore-forming animal parasites are highly insensitive. The practical duration of contact exposure is generally 10 to 15 minutes. For example, bell peppers are not affected by 250 ppm available chlorine, but carrots may lose orange colour intensity, and celery and asparagus may develop light-brown surface pits when exposed to chlorine concentrations exceeding 250 ppm.
Chlorine kills only what it directly contacts. Water films that form on very small contours on plant surfaces may prevent the chlorinated water from directly contacting target microorganisms.
The chlorine concentration and pH of chlorinated process water should be checked frequently using test paper strips, colorimetric kits, or electronic sensors. The optimal frequency of testing is best determined through on-site experience.
WASTE WATER DISPOSAL
A disposal plan for chlorinated process water must be in place before any chlorination system is used. As a concentrate, chlorine gas is extremely dangerous and should be used only in properly designed containment systems that are isolated from the processing plant area.
CHLORINE DIOXIDE (CIO₂)
A yellow to red gas with 2.5 times the oxidizing potential of chlorine gas, chlorine dioxide is explosive at concentrations above 10 percent a.i. or at temperatures above 130°C (266°F).
The disinfecting power of chlorine dioxide is relatively constant with a pH of 6 to10. It is effective against most microbes at concentrations of 3 to 5 ppm in clean water. The need for on-site generation, specialized worker safety programs, and closed
injection systems for containment of concentrate leakage and fumes from volatilization make chloride dioxide relatively expensive for produce applications.
Ozone is another strong oxidizing agent used in disinfection of process water, drinking water, and swimming pools. In clean, potable water free of organic debris and soil particulates, ozone is a highly effective sanitizer at concentrations of 0.5 to 2 ppm. Ozone is almost insoluble in water (0.00003g/100ml at 20°C (68°F); its disinfectant activity is unaffected in at a water pH from 6 to 8. Ozone is highly corrosive to equipment and lethal to humans with prolonged exposure at concentrations above 4 ppm. Ozone is detectable by human smell at 0.01 to 0.04 ppm. At 1 ppm ozone has a pungent, disagreeable odour and is irritating to eyes and throat.
PEROXYACETIC ACID (CH₃CO₃H)
Peroxyacetic acid is a colourless liquid with an acid odour; as a concentrate it is considered a hazardous substance and a severe irritant if breathed.
SODIUM HYPOPHOSPHITE (NaH₂PO₂)
Although sodium hypophosphite has been shown to be active against spore-forming microbes known to be resistant to standard levels of chlorine, it has had few performance tests in process water.
SODIUM SULFITE (NA₂SO₃)
The U.S FDA prohibits the use of sodium sulphite or any sulphite-generating materials as additives to process or cooling water at any concentration. No food residue or tolerance level is permitted.
An alternative to chemicals for disinfection of recycled or recirculating process water, ultraviolet light has germicidal activity in wavelengths from 250 to 275 nm (shortwave UV-C). The effectiveness of UV-C in disinfection depends on maintaining a clean water supply by filtration.
RELATED WEBSITES OF INTEREST
- National Food Safety Database http://ww.foodsafety.org
- UC Post harvest Outreach Program http://postharvest.ucdavis.edu
- Water Quality Association http://wqa.org
- Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) http://www.osha-slc.gov
M2 OCCIDO PLUS OVERVIEW AND WORKING
M2 OCCIDO PLUS is formulated as a safe efficient alternative to chlorine and
chlorine-based products in the disinfection of fresh produce where chlorine is used as a disinfection medium.The scientific working of the disinfection/sanitizing process of M2 OCCIDO PLUS is based on new innovative oxidation technology
During the oxidation treatment of water and wastewater, free radicals are generated in sufficient quantity to remove organic material, traceable organic contaminants, and certain inorganic pollutants. Free radical activity also increases the biodegradability of inorganic contaminants by altering the chemical structure and in the case of pathogen micro-organisms, destroying the cell membranes.
After a chain reaction in the water, the active components produce a continuous and sustained nascent oxidising agent in excess of 1000mV (ORP value), while at the same time it oxidizes the chloride ion to yield stable hypochlorous acid, which oxidizes and kills the pathogen. The initial dose of M2 OCCIDO Plus, as prescribed, can yield oxidizing agents for up to 24 hours, with the same disinfection capability as in the first few minutes, without any top up of product in the disinfection bath.
The active components interfere with the synthesis of a pathogen’s DNA and RNA to solidify the denaturalisation of the pathogen protein. Furthermore, the active components inhibit the systematic activity of the pathogen’s enzyme and affects its metabolism, increase the permeability of the epicyte (cell membrane), and as a result, the pathogen will dissolve (soften) and burst.
M2 OCCIDO PLUS is formulated for two different applications namely:
- Dip-tank or drench application
- Spray-on application.
M2 OCCIDO PLUS for water treatment is a white free flowing granular, highly soluble in water chemical compilation containing no chlorine or any halogen-based product. It is environmentally friendly and does not form any disinfectant by-products(DBP’s) Trihalomethanes (THM’s), Haloacetic acid (HAA’s),MX-Factor or DCA’s. All components used are listed on the GRAS (generally recognized as safe) list of the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) of the USA.
M2 OCCIDO PLUS is a proprietary blend of various oxidizing salts acting as a powerful oxidizer, stabilizers, pH regulators and a non-ionic surfactant. The product has an excellent residual value ensuring continuous killing abilities. One of the ingredients of M2 OCCIDO PLUS breaks down biofilm that clings to surfaces and
contains large quantities of bacteria and the additional powerful anti-bacterial component ofM2 OCCIDO PLUS destroys the bacteria through membrane changes or damage due to penetration of the cell walls.M2 OCCIDO PLUS can be used to oxidize hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and other reduced sulfur compounds such as mercaptans, sulfides, disulfides and sulfites, in waste- water.
M2 OCCIDO PLUS achieved a log 5 reduction (99,999%) at 15 grams per 25 litres of water and a log 6 reduction (99,9999%) at 15 grams per 10 litres of water on the following microorganisms:
M2 Occido Plus was approved in a SANAS International accredited laboratory on the following standards:
- SANS 51276 and EN 1276 approved as biocidal for chemical disinfectants and anticeptics
- BS EN 14476:2013+A2;2019 approved as virucidal (done at MSL Solution Providers in the UK)
- SANS 1853 SABS and EU approved toxicity evaluation
- SANS 51650 and EN 1650 approved as Fungicidal
- SANS 53704 and EN 13704 approved as Sporicidal)
- Global G.A.P. Compliant (Good Agricultural Practices)
- NRCS Compliant (National Regulator for Compulsory Specifications )
FULL LABORATORY ANALYSIS AND MSDS AVAILABLE ON REQUEST
M2 Occido Plus